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January 16 2017

populani

Why On Dating Sites The Quantity Of Women Is Less Than The Number Of Men?

If we will analyze the databases of dating sites dedicated to American and European audience, social networks, which activity is dating - we will see the lasting tendency that the men's profiles are considerably more than the women's profiles. Of course, if we will surf the sites, which activity is specialized on goods for women - forums for moms, sites about women's fashion, embroidery - on these resources the women's profiles prevail. On Russian dating services the men audience is less the women quantity too.

But on dating resources for American and European users the quantity of men is more than the number of women. And it doesn't depend of variety of dating site - if it's paid or free one. On dating sites the ratio on men's and women's profiles are 75% of men's profiles and 25% of women' profiles. We can see such situation as on famous dating sites, as on new dating services, which haven't become very popular yet. Why do American and European women neglect online dating? What reasons of it are? Let's analyze this situation.

First of all, according to United States Census Bureau, in America and in the European Union the quantity of men is more than the number of women. Under their statistics in 2009 in the USA, in the age from 15 to 67 years old, to 1 woman are born 1,5 men. In the European Union, in the age from 15 to 67 years old, to 1 woman are born 1,6 men. Starting from this statistics, some men can not easily find their future wife. And to reach their goal - to create family - they are forced to take active measures to meet their love. For example, some American and European men register to dating sites to have possibility to meet here their future wives.

If in America and in the European Union the quantity of women is more than the number of men, most women have not such necessity to search their future husband on dating sites. American and European women, if they are beautiful, can find their future life partners in offline life - at work, on the street, in public places and events such as restaurant, library, cafe, holidays, festivals. In that way most women don't register to dating sites.

The other reason is the females' psychology - women are more practical and sociable than men. Women think they must see their future life partner personally. Women talk a lot about their intimate life to their friends. Moreover females don't hide details of intimate life in conversation with close friends. For example, a single girl says to her friend that she wants to find new boyfriend. Her friend can acquaint this single girl with her neighbour, colleague, classmate, which is single too. In that way, women prefer off line dating. And they can find their future husband in such way.

Most men are less sociable then women. Especially, if we talk about shy men or men, who work a lot, make career. Modest men can feel shy to make acquaintance with colleagues, classmates of their friends. Busy men have not time to visit public places, where there are single girls. Their daily itinerary is home - work - home. When and how can they meet a girl for dating? For these men, if they are single, it is easier to register to dating site and try to find their life partner online, communicate with her and only after that meet her personally.

Online dating is comfortable for men, who work in IT sphere, for programmers. In most cases, the profession of IT programmer is work for men. For IT programmers computer, the Internet are their life. For them it is more comfortable to register to dating sites, dating networks and meet their future wife here.

According to statistics of NSF's SESTAT in the field of computers, information technologies work 33,1% of women. These women, of course, use dating sites to meet men. But the percentage of women in the field of IT is small. Most women don't want to learn informatics, IT, computers. They think that this profession isn't interesting for women, it's for men.

If we will analyze Muslim countries, we Meet Positive will see clear tendency of the men predominance. In the Muslim countries women can not leave house, go to shop, market without according of man (father, brother, husband). What can we say about online dating for Muslim women? Only Europeanized Muslim women, who have university-level education and wealthy can use computer. But in this case such women can register and visit dating sites only with parents' permission.

If we will analyze African countries, we will watch high level of illiteracy. In Africa there are a lot of people, especially women, who can not write and read and moreover, they can not use computer, because they haven't got computer and Internet. Therefore most African women can not register to dating sites and networks.

To make up a conclusion to our reasonings, we can sum up: on dating sites and networks the quantity of women is less than the number of men because of religious, demographic and social factors. And this ratio is 25% to 75%.



By: Emily Davis

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

If you single you are welcome to join 100% free dating site www.luvfree.com which provide free dating services and open to search and look profiles of members without registration.



http://www.articledashboard.com/Article/Why-on-dating-sites-the-quantity-of-women-is-less-than-the-number-of-men/1758389

January 13 2017

populani

Human exposure to herpesvirus B--seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia. (Research).

The Sangeh Monkey Forest is located in the Abiensemal District,

central Bali, approximately 20 km north of Denpasar, Bali's most

populous city. Built in the 17th century by the royal family of Mengwi,

it is now maintained by the people of the village of Sangeh. The macaque

(Macaca fascicularis) population at Sangeh totals approximately 200

animals. Their range extends through the monkey forest proper and across

a main road that abuts the area. The monkey forest, a 6-hectare stand of

Dipterocarpus hasseltii and other climax forest trees with heights up to

40 m, actually provides little food for the macaques. Most of their

caloric intake is from daily provisions provided by temple workers and

food given to them by visitors.

Address for correspondence: Lisa Jones-Engel, Department of

Psychology and National Primate Research Center, University of

Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; fax: 206-543-7959; e-mail:

ga_engel@yahoo.com

The threat of CeHV-1 to humans in nonlaboratory contexts worldwide

has yet to be studied, despite the fact that the laboratory macaques

that harbor the virus originated in Asia or are descendents of macaques

originating there. Macaque species range throughout South and Southeast

Asia and have adapted well to human-altered environments. In turn,

macaques have become incorporated into religious mythology and local

culture. Hindus in Indonesia, Nepal, and India, for example, regard

macaques as sacred (11), and in many areas protected macaque populations

have thrived alongside dense human settlements for centuries. On the

Indonesian island of Bali, more than 44 Balinese Hindu temples have,

over the centuries, become refuges for populations of free-ranging

macaques (11). These monkeys subsist at least in part on the food and

flower offerings left by Balinese Hindu worshipers. Over time, some of

these temples have become tourist destinations known as "monkey

forests," where macaques are the premier attraction. At the Sangeh

Monkey Forest in Central Bali, dozens of local photographers make a

living by enticing macaques to climb onto visitors and selling the

photos of visitors posing with macaques. However, photographers and

tourists are by no means the only humans who come into contact with

these macaques. At Sangeh, three troops of macaques, a total of >200

monkeys, range throughout the monkey forest, along a road lined with

merchants' shops, and into the adjacent town. Their daily travels

afford ample opportunity for contact with shop owners and others who

pass near the monkey forest.

Over the past decades, the widespread use of laboratory nonhuman

primates as models for the study of human diseases has led to the

exposure of laboratory workers to infectious agents endemic in nonhuman

primates. Relatively little is known about the epizootology of

infectious agents harbored by nonlaboratory macaques and even less is

known about the transmission of these agents from macaques to humans

with whom they come into contact. CeHV-1 is one of a few infectious

agents known to be transmitted from macaques to humans. Serologic,

virologic, and molecular studies have demonstrated that a handful of

laboratory workers have acquired infection with Simian foamy virus as

well as Simian immunodeficiency virus and simian retrovirus, though no

known adverse health effects were associated with these infections

(21-29). Very little is known about the effects of these viruses on

humans, since the number of seroconverters is low, <10 cases for each

virus. No serologic studies outside laboratory settings have been

conducted. Given the paucity of data on the effects of CeHV-1 and other

endemic macaque pathogens on humans, especially in nonlaboratory

settings, reducing the kinds of interspecies contact most likely to lead

to pathogen transmission would be prudent. Our data suggest some

possible interventions. Because workers who fed macaques were far more

likely to be bitten or scratched than their other colleagues, an

intervention aimed at reducing injuries in workers might logically focus

on feeding practices. Restricting feeding to specially trained personnel

who distribute food to macaques in such a manner as to avoid physical

contact with them is one strategy that has worked effectively at other

monkey forests (A. Fuentes, pers. comm.). Also, since approximately two

thirds of those who are injured report injuries to the hands, the use of

protective gloves should be advocated for personnel coming into frequent

contact with monkeys. Of course, implementing these kinds of changes

would require a commitment from the community to change the way the

monkey forests operate.

Acknowledgments

Public Health Significance of Nonhuman Primate Zoonoses

The authors thank P. Sukrama, D. Cohn, J. Heidrich J. Froehlich, R.

Kyes, and A. Stone, as well as Pak Budi, Pak Nyoman, the Sangeh Temple

Committee, G. Emel, Y. Singeo, G. Kelemen, H. Engel, L. Engel, and

Singapore Airlines for facilitating this research; J. Supriatna and the

Indonesian Directorate of Nature Conservation and Wildlife Management;

and E. Bedrick, J. Cheek, D. Goade, and K. Tollestrup for their comments

on earlier drafts.

(17.) Weigler BJ, Hird DW, Hilliard JK, Lerche NW, Roberts JA,

Scott LM. Epidemiology of Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus)

infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort of rhesus macaques. J

Infect Dis 1993;167:257-63.

(24.) Sandstrom PA, Phan KO, Switzer WM, Fredeking T, Chapman L,

Heneine W, et al. Simian foamy virus infection among zoo keepers. Lancet

2000;355:551-2.

Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 [CeHV-1]) is an

alphaherpesvirus endemic to macaques of South and Southeast Asia (1). In

macaques, the usual host, CeHV-1 causes mild symptoms, similar to the

effects of herpes simplex virus 1 in humans (1). Clinical findings in

macaques usually consist of oral or perioral vesicular lesions. After

initial infection, CeHV-1 remains latent in the dorsal root or

trigeminal ganglia of an infected macaque and can be shed periodically

through herpetic lesions.

Demographic data for the human study participants are summarized in

Table 2. The mean age of the study population was 35.6 years (standard

deviation 12.0). The median age was 35 years (range 18-75); 63.8% of

respondents were male. The three most common occupations were merchants

(34.3%), photographers (24.8%), and farmers (18.1%). Consistent with

cultural norms, 35 of the 36 merchants were women who owned shops along

the main promenade leading to the temple area. Of the 38 female

respondents, all but 3 were merchants. All respondents were Balinese

Hindus residing in the village of Sangeh.

(29.) Lerche NW, Switzer WM, Yee JL, Shanmugam V, Rosenthal AN,

Chapman LE, et al. Evidence of infection with simian type-D retrovirus

in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates. J Virol

2001;75:1783-9.

Recent work supports the existence of three genotypes of CeHV-1,

each associated with a distinct species of macaque (20). It has been

suggested that only the strain associated with rhesus macaques (M.

mulatta), the most commonly used laboratory macaque, causes virulent

disease in humans (20). This hypothesis is based on the observation

that, when the identity of the source animal was known, human CeHV-1

infection was associated with exposure to rhesus macaques but never

solely with exposure to other macaque species, including M.

fascicularis, the species found in Bali, and the second-most commonly

used macaque in laboratory research.

Thirty-one (81.6%) of the 38 sampled macaques tested positive for

antibodies to CeHV-1. One (25%) of the four juveniles, two (33.3%) of

the six subadults, and all 28 adults (100%) were seropositive. The

association of increased seroprevalence with increasing age was

statistically significant (p<0.0001, chi square). These figures are

consistent with those of other seroprevalence studies performed on

captive and non-captive macaques (15-18).

The survey data presented in this study suggest that many workers

in and around the Sangeh Monkey Forest have been bitten or scratched by

a macaque. Serologic data show that >80% of these macaques have been

exposed to CeHV-1. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of this

virus predicts that seropositive animals periodically shed it through

mucosal lesions (1,17-19). Therefore, these workers report injuries that

put them at risk for exposure to the virus.

The hypothesis that only certain species of macaques may carry a

pathogenic strain of CeHV-1 has not been tested. Almost all such

infections have occurred in laboratory settings where rhesus macaques

constitute most of laboratory nonhuman primates. In addition, rhesus

macaques tend to be the more aggressive species. Thus, rhesus macaques

may simply cause more injuries and hence be associated with more viral

exposures than other macaque species. Furthermore, no case of CeHV-1

infection in humans has been reported in India or Nepal, countries where

human-macaque contact is known to occur outside the laboratory and where

the predominant macaque species is the rhesus monkey. However, no active

surveillance for CeHV-1 is carried out in Nepal and India, and persons

diagnosed with encephalitis in these countries are highly unlikely to be

tested for this virus.

(23.) Callahan ME, Switzer WM, Mathews AL, Roberts BD, Heneine W,

Folks TM, et al. Persistent zoonotic infection of a human with simian

foamy virus in the absence of an intact orf-2 accessory gene. J Virol

1999;73:9619-24.

Wound Care and the Risk for Pathogen Transmission

(20.) Smith LS, Black DH, Eberle R. Molecular evidence for distinct

genotypes of monkey B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) which are related to

the macaque host species. J Virol 1998;72:9224-32.

Most men (89.4%) and women (79%) reported that they had offered

food to macaques. Injury was more prevalent in persons who reported

feeding macaques (55.6%) than in those who denied feeding them (7.1%).

The prevalence ratio in those who fed monkeys was 8.3, indicating that

exposure in those who fed monkeys was nearly eight times more common

than in those who did not feed monkeys.

(3.) Hummeler K, Davidson WL, Henle W, LaBoccetta AC, Ruch HG.

Encephalomyelitis due to infection with Herpesvirus simiae (Herpesvirus

B): report of two fatal laboratory cases. N Engl J Med 1959;261:64-8.

This research was supported in part by grants from the Chicago

Zoological Society, the University of New Mexico's Student Research

and Allocations Committee and the University of New Mexico School of

Graduate Studies. This research presented here was approved by the

University of New Mexico's Human research and Review Committee and

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

The above data suggest that human-macaque contact capable of

transmitting CeHV-1 is relatively common at Sangeh. Indeed, these data

may represent only a small fraction of the human-macaque contact

occurring there. Wheatley (11) reported that up to 40% of visitors to

Sangeh are bitten by a macaque. Given that thousands of tourists visit

Sangeh during a typical month, a reasonable estimate of the annual

number of injuries inflicted by macaques is in the thousands, and Sangeh

is but one of a handful of monkey forests on Bali that draw large

numbers of visitors. Yet no case of human CeHV-1 infection has been

reported in Bali, either in association with monkey forests or in any

other nonlaboratory context (K. Suaryana, pers. comm.). Several

explanations for this observation can be offered.

Seroprevalence of Antibodies to CeHV-1 in Macaques

CeHV-1 infection in humans might also be underreported if the

disease is rare, especially since awareness of this virus among

health-care providers in Bali is low. The symptoms of infection might be

mistaken for those of other neurologic diseases, such as polio or



Guillain-Barre syndrome. Thus it is theoretically possible that humans

reporting mild sequelae following monkey bites and scratches might be

describing a mild variant of B virus syndrome. We are aware of no

research examining the prevalence of antibodies to CeHV-1 in persons

with neurologic syndromes in Asia.

Dr. Engel is on the faculty of the Swedish/Providence Family

Practice Residency and on the clinical faculty of the Department of

Family Medicine at the University of Washington. His current research

focus is bidirectional pathogen transmission between humans and nonhuman

primates in Asia.

(19.) Weier EC, Bhatt PN, Jacoby RO, Hilliard JK, Morgenstern S.

Infrequent shedding and transmission of Herpesvirus simiae from

seropositive macaques. Lab Anim Sci 1993;43:541-4-4.

Prevalence Ratios for Exposures to Monkey Bites and Scratches

(6.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fatal

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B Virus) infection following a

mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker

protection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47:1073-6.

Two published case series have studied transmission of CeHV-1 from

primates to humans. Friefeld et al. (7) examined prevalence of

antibodies to CeHV-1 in primate handlers exposed to bites, scratches,

needle-sticks, and mucosal splashes from laboratory macaques. None of

the 166 exposed persons had antibodies to the virus. Similarly, in a

small study of eight persons bitten by pet macaques, none seroconverted

(8). Nevertheless, the threat of herpesvirus B has led the Centers for

Disease Control and Prevention to recommend strict precautions for

persons who come into contact with monkeys in occupational settings

(2,6,9,10).

Demographic and serologic data on the macaques sampled are shown

(Table 1).

References

In contrast with laboratory settings, where protocols regarding

care of nonhuman primate-inflicted wounds specify immediate and thorough

decontamination, awareness of the risk of zoonotic disease in workers at

Sangeh is low. Data on care of macaque bite and scratch wounds reflected

this. Lack of prompt and rigorous wound care may thus pose added risk

for transmission of CeHV-1 and other nonhuman primate-borne pathogens

for workers and visitors at Sangeh.

Prevalences of bite and scratch injuries are summarized in Table 3.

Results from the survey showed that 76.9% of persons had touched or been

touched by a macaque. Almost a third (29.5%) reported that they had been

bitten on at least .one occasion by a macaque; 39% had been scratched at

least once; some persons reported being both bitten and scratched. Of

the 51 injured, 94.1% were holding food at the time of the injury.

Gregory A. Engel, * Lisa Jones-Engel, * Michael A. Schillaci, *

Komang Gde Suaryana, ([dagger]) Artha Putra, ([dagger]) Agustin Fuentes,

([double dagger]) and Richard Henkel, ([section])

Visitors interact with macaques mainly in an open area adjacent to

the principal temple structures. The main entrance to the monkey forest

is reached by a promenade lined by shops offering clothing and

souvenirs, in addition to peanuts and bananas for the macaques. Groups

of macaques also make their way down this thoroughfare or along the shop

roofs during their daily ranging.

(16.) Keeble SA. B virus infection in monkeys. Ann NY Acad Sci

1960;85:960-9.

(11.) Wheatley BP. The sacred monkeys of Bali. Prospect Heights

(IL): Waveland Press, Inc.; 1999.

Macaques were opportunistically darted within the monkey temple

area and surrounding forest by using a Pneu-Dart air-powered pistol

(Pneu-Dart Inc., Williamsport, PA). Darts were loaded with 15 mg of

Telazol (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, IA; tiletamine

HCl/zolazepam HCl) to ensure initial sedation. Immediately after

darting, the macaque was moved to a secluded area and <5 mg/kg of

supplemental Telazol was administered for sedation. Six milliliters of

blood was withdrawn from the femoral vein, placed in a serum separator

tube, and centrifuged in the field to extract the serum. Sera were

frozen and stored at -20[degrees]C. Dental eruption sequence was

recorded and used as a proxy measure of chronologic age. Macaques were

observed and allowed to recover from anesthesia in a quiet area before

being released. No macaques were injured as a result of this protocol.

(14.) Zocchetti C, Consonni D, Bertazzi PA. Estimation of

prevalence rate ratios from cross-sectional data. Int J Epidemiol

1995;24:1064-5.

Implications and Recommendations for Public Health Practice

More data are needed to assess whether CeHV-1 poses a substantial

public health threat to workers at Sangeh. Serologic data from humans

who have been scratched or bitten by macaques could help to determine

whether these persons have been exposed to the virus. In addition, a

thorough search for cases of human CeHV-1 infection, in Southeast Asia

as well as in South Asia, could yield further insight into the

epidemiology of this virus in the human population. However, the virus

has not surfaced as a recognized infectious threat for humans in areas

where the two species have lived commensally for centuries.

Anatomic Distribution of Injuries, Sequelae, and Wound Treatment



Table 1. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Cercopithecine herpesvirus

1 (herpesvirus B) in Sangeh macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Bali



Age group (a)/sex No. (%) ELISA positive/total



Juvenile

Male 1/4 (25)

Female --

Total 1/4 (25)



Subadult

Male 1/4 (25)

Female 1/2 (50)

Total 2/6 (33.3)



Adult

Male 21/21 (100)

Female 7/7 (100)

Total 28/28 (100)



All ages

Male 23/29 (79.3)

Female 8/9 (88.8)

Total 31/38 (81.6)



(a) Juveniles are defined as 1-3 years of age; subadults

as 3-5 years of age; adults as >5 years of age.



--, no data; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Table 2. Demographic characteristics of human

study participants, Sangeh, Bali



Demographic characteristic No. (% of total)



All persons 105 (100)



Age group

<20 11(10.5)

20-29 27 (25.7)

30-39 26 (24.8)

40-49 31 (29.5)

>49 10 (9.5)



Sex

Male 67 (63.8)

Female 38 (36.2)



Marital status

Single 29 (27.6)

Married 75 (71.4)

Widowed 1 (1)



Education

[less than or

equal to] 6th grade 38 (36.2)

7th-9th grade 23 (21.9)

10th-12th grade 38 (36.2)

University 6 (3.8)



Occupation

Merchant 36 (34.3)

Photographer 26 (24.8)

Farmer 19 (18.1)

Security 7 (6.7)

Government employee 5 (4.8)

Traditional guard 5 (4.8)

Laborer 4 (3.8)

Other 3 (2.9)

Table 3. Prevalence of bite and scratch injuries from monkeys to

humans, Sangeh, Bali



Descriptor No. (%) of persons (n = 105)



Bitten 31 (29.5)

Bitten more than once 7 (6.7)

Scratched 41 (39.0)

Scratched more than once 15 (14.3)

Bitten or scratched 51 (48.6)

Possessed food at time of injury 48 (94.1)

All persons 105 (100)

Table 4. Prevalence and prevalence ratios for exposure to monkey

bites or scratches by different variables, Sangeh, Bali



Total

no. (%)

persons Prevalence p

Variable exposed ratio 95% CI value



Age group (yrs)

<20 11 (9.0) 1.0 -- --

20-29 27 (63.0) 6.9 1.75, 117.30 0.045

30-39 26 (50.0) 5.5 1.34, 93.86 0.080

40-49 31 (45.2) 5.0 1.21, 84.81 0.100

>49 10 (60.0) 6.0 1.47, 113.93 0.056



Sex

Female 38 (23.7) 1.0 -- --

Male 67 (62.7) 2.6 1.55, 5.26 0.002



Occupation

Security 7 (14.3) 1.0 -- --

Merchant 36 (25.0) 1.7 0.41, 29.67 0.564

Photographer 26 (57.7) 4.0 1.08, 66.80 0.138

Farmer 19 (94.7) 6.6 1.90, 108.43 0.041

Other 17 (47.1) 2.2 0.80, 55.40 0.215



Education

University 6 (16.7) 1.0 -- --

High school 38 (39.5) 2.4 0.64, 38.91 0.356

Middle school 23 (56.5) 3.4 0.93, 55.53 0.190

Grade school or none 38 (57.9) 3.5 0.99, 56.51 0.177



Fed monkeys

No 15 (6.7) 1.0 -- --

Yes 90 (55.6) 8.3 2.08, 142.05 0.029



CI, confidence intervals.

Exposure to Macaque Bites and Scratches at the Sangeh Monkey Forest

(2.) Holmes GP, Chapman LE, Stewart JA, Straus SE, Hilliard JK,

Davenport DS, et al. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of

B-virus infections in exposed persons. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:421-39.

CeHV-1 a Cause of Human Disease on Bali?

(25.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonhuman primate

spuma-virus infections among persons with occupational exposure--United

States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996;46:129-31.

(15.) Kessler MJ, Hilliard JK. Seroprevalence of B virus

(Herpesvirus simiae) antibodies in a naturally formed group of rhesus

macaques. J Med Primatol 1990;19:155-60.

(4.) Centers for Disease Control. B-virus infection in

humans--Michigan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1989;38:453-4.

Another possible explanation for the lack of reported human CeHV-1

cases is that opportunities for exposure to actual virus may be rare.

Previous research suggests that, in the laboratory setting, macaques

seropositive for CeHV-1 antibodies, even under certain kinds of stress,

infrequently shed the virus (17,19). If the macaques at Sangeh behave

similarly and shed the virus infrequently, the opportunity for exposure

may be rare. One must also take into account the probability that the

macaques that bite or scratch carry CeHV-1. Specifically, infant and

juvenile macaques are less likely to test positive for anti-CeHV-1

antibodies than older macaques and are thus, as a group, probably less

likely to shed virus (1,15). Data from the Ubud Monkey Forest (A.

Fuentes, pers. comm.) suggest that adult male and female macaques

accounted for approximately half of all bites, with the remainder

attributed to juveniles. At least half the bites, therefore, are caused

by macaques that are less likely to harbor the virus. Unfortunately, no

large-scale studies of CeHV-1 shedding in wild macaques have been

performed to date, so the rate at which these animals shed the virus is

unknown.

Universal precautions were observed during animal handling and

specimen collection to minimize the risk of pathogen transmission

between researchers and nonhuman primate subjects. All methods were

reviewed and approved by the University of New Mexico's

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

Field Protocol

(8.) Ostrowski SR, Leslie MJ, Parrott T, Abelt S, Piercy PE.

B-virus from pet monkeys: an emerging threat in the United States? Emerg

Infect Dis 1998;4:117-21.

Ethnographic Surveys

(22.) Schweizer M, Falcone V, Gange J, Turek R, Neumann-Haefelin D.

Simian foamy virus isolated from an accidentally infected human

individual. J Virol 1997;71:4821-4.

(27.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Anonymous survey

for simian immunodeficiency virus (S1V) seropositivity in SIV-laboratory

researchers-United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1992;41:814-5.

(21.) Schweizer M, Turek R, Hahn H, Schliephake A, Netzer KO, Eder

G, et al. Markers of foamy virus infection in monkeys, apes and

accidentally infected humans: appropriate testing fails to confirm

suspected foamy virus prevalence in humans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses

1995;11:161-70.

Bite and Scratch Results

(28.) Khabbaz RF, Heneine W, George JR, Parekh B, Rowe T, Woods T,

et al. Brief report: infection of a laboratory worker with simian

immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1994;330:172-7.

The local temple committee provided researchers with a list of 250

persons whose work in and around the monkey forest brought them into

regular proximity with the macaques. Most persons were either

photographers or merchants whose shops lined the road leading to the

monkey forest. Of this group, 105 persons (42%) volunteered to

participate in the study. In July 2000, a questionnaire that focused 6n

human-primate contact, written in Bahasa Indonesia, the national

language of Indonesia, was administered by Balinese team members.

Information requested included the type and number of contacts with

Sangeh's macaques, injuries or sequelae resulting from macaque

bites and scratches, and treatments of those injuries.

(5.) Holmes GP, Hilliard JK, Klontz KC, Rupert AH, Schindler CM,

Parrish E, et al. B-virus (Herpesvirus simiae) infection in humans:

epidemiological investigations of a cluster. Ann Intern Med

1990;112:833-9.

Discussion

(26.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seroconversion to

simian immunodeficiency virus in two laboratory workers. MMWR Morb

Mortal Wkly Rep 1992;41:36.

(13.) Lee J. Odds ratio or relative risk for cross-sectional data?

Int J Epidemiol 1994;23:201-2.

In contrast to its benign course in macaques, in humans CeHV-1

produces a fulminating meningoencephalitis with a mortality rate

approaching 70% (2). Since first reported in the 1930s, a total of 43

cases of CeHV-1 have been diagnosed worldwide, all reported from the

United States, Great Britain, or Canada, exclusively in people Who had

direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques (2-6).

Several modes of primate-to-human transmission have been

implicated, most involving direct exposure of tissue or fluid from an

infected macaque. Weigler's 1992 review of human CeHV-1 cases (1)

found that most were infected through direct bite and scratch wounds:

one case resulted from direct contamination of a preexisting wound with

monkey saliva, two cases occurred after lacerations from culture bottles

containing macaque cells, and two occurred in persons punctured by

needles previously used in macaques. One case of human-to-human

transmission has been documented, when infection developed in the wife

of a man who subsequently died of a CeHV-1 infection. She had a rash on

her finger that came into contact with a vesicular lesion on her

husband's arm, at the site of a monkey bite. The most recent

documented case occurred in 1997 at the U.S. Yerkes Regional Primate

Center, where a young worker who received an ocular exposure with

contaminated body fluids from a CeHV-1-positive macaque became ill and

subsequently died (6).

(7.) Freifeld AG, Hilliard J, Southers J, Murray M, Savarese B,

Schmitt JM, et al. A controlled seroprevalence survey of primate

handlers for evidence of asymptomatic herpesvirus B infection. J Infect

Dis 1995;171:1031-4.

Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as

the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting

persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However,

the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains

to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to

herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that

has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali,

Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in

Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten

or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who

fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies

to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with

macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to

herpesvirus B.

**********

Finally, resistance to CeHV-1 in the exposed human population may

explain the lack of reported cases. Human populations living in

proximity to the monkey forests in Bali have been living commensally with macaques for centuries. These populations could conceivably acquire

immunologic resistance to the virus as a result of frequent exposure

over time.

(1.) Weigler BJ. Biology of B virus in macaque and human hosts: a

review. Clin lnfect Dis 1992;14:555-67.

This study investigated human-macaque contact in people who work in

and around the Sangeh Monkey Forest. Our aim was to examine the risk of

exposure to CeHV-1 from Sangeh's macaques. We addressed two

principal questions: 1) does human-primate contact capable of

transmitting CeHV-1 occur in this context? and 2) are the Sangeh

macaques seropositive for antibodies to this virus?

Methods

Laboratory Techniques and Data Analysis

(12.) Katz D, Hilliard JK, Eberle R, Lipper SL. ELISA for detection

of group-specific antibodies in human and simian sera induced by herpes

simplex and related simian viruses. J Virol Methods 1986;14:99-109.

In terms of wound treatment, 54.9% of those injured did not use any

kind of treatment for their scratch or bite injuries, 21.6% washed the

wound with an antiseptic solution, and 19.6% washed with soap. Of the

injured, 11.7% were treated at a medical clinic, and 2% were treated by

an herbalist. Five of the persons treated at the medical clinic received

antibiotics; none received antiviral prophylaxis.

Demographics of the Human Study Population

Table 4 presents prevalence and prevalence ratios for exposure to

monkey bites or scratches, by respondent's age group, sex,

occupation, level of education, and whether the respondent fed macaques.

Persons in their twenties had the highest prevalence of exposure (63%)

while those <20 years of age had the lowest (9%). The exposure rate

for male participants (62.7%) was higher than that for females. The

prevalence ratio for males was 2.6, indicating that their exposure was

more than two and a half times as common as that of female study

participants. Of occupations represented by more than five persons,

farmers (94.7%) had the highest exposure prevalence, followed by

photographers (57.7%), merchants (25%), and security guards (14.3%). For

farmers, the prevalence ratio was 6.6, with a 95% CI (1.61, 78.46).

Exposure rates were higher in persons with grade school or less

education (57.9%) and middle school education (56.5%) than those who had

reached high school (39.5%) and university (16.7%).

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to detect antibodies to

CeHV-1 in macaque sera were performed at the B-Virus Reference

Laboratory at Georgia State University (12). Questionnaire and serologic data were entered into a spreadsheet, and univariate analysis was

performed with the JUMP-IN 4 statistical software package (SAS

Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, version 4). The association between macaque

CeHV-1 seropositivity and age was determined by chi-square test.

Prevalence ratios, regarded by some as the most appropriate tool for

analyzing cross-sectional studies, were calculated to describe

associations between demographic variable and feeding behavior and

prevalence of bite and scratch exposure (13,14). For all variables the

category with the lowest prevalence was used as the referent.

Calculation of prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals [CI] was

performed with the NCSS Statistical Software package (Kaysville, UT).

Results

Data such as those presented in this study can play an important

role in preventing the emergence of primate zoonoses. By understanding

where and how interspecies contact occurs we may take informed steps

toward reducing the likelihood of interspecies pathogen transmission.

Specifically, information about interspecies pathogen transmission may

help to identify priority areas for intervention to reduce the emergence

of nonhuman primate-borne zoonoses.

(9.) Wells DL, Lipper SL, Hilliard JK, Stewart JA, Holmes GP,

Herrmann KL, et al. Herpesvirus simiae contamination of primary rhesus

monkey kidney cell cultures. CDC recommendations to minimize risks to

laboratory personnel. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1989;12:333-5.

By anatomic distribution, 64.7% of the 51 herpes stuff injuries were to the

hands, 7.8% to the arms, 7.8% to the legs, 11.8% to the head, and 7.8%

to the back or buttocks. Of the 51 persons bitten or scratched, 51%

reported that the wound had bled, 9.8% reported a rash at the bite site,

11.8% noted fever after their injury, 3.9% had headache, and 5.9% had

generalized weakness. None of those interviewed reported symptoms

consistent with previously described cases of CeHV-1 infection.

Another incentive for enacting such changes is that monkey forests

and the macaques that live in them are valuable cultural and economic

resources to the communities in which they are located. Disease

transmission in the opposite direction, namely human to nonhuman

primate, may threaten these macaques. If so, regulating interspecies

contact could help to preserve the monkey forests as an economic

resource for the community. Perhaps a long-term strategy to preserve

monkey forests will recognize the importance of minimizing infectious

risks to both humans and macaques.

Study Site

(18.) Weigler BJ, Roberts JA, Hird DW, Lerche NW, Hilliard JK. A

cross-sectional survey for B virus antibody in a colony of group housed

rhesus macaques. Lab Anim Sci 1990;40:257-61.

* University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA;

([dagger]) Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia; ([double

dagger]) Central Washington University, Ellensberg, Washington, USA; and

([section]) Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

(10.) Centers for Disease Control. Guidelines for the prevention of

Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) infection in monkey handlers. MMWR Morb

Mortal Wkly Rep 1987;36:680-2,687-9.

https://www.thefreelibrary.com/HumanexposuretoherpesvirusB--seropositivemacaques,Bali,...-a090681728

April 19 2016

populani

Medical Benefits Of Tempurpedic Foam Mattress And Adjustable Bed

Traditional mattresses, unfortunately, are very rigid and are therefore likely to resist contouring to the body and the way it is shaped. Innersprings push up while gravity pulls you down, causing improper spinal alignment and poor circulation. Also, sometimes you may find that the mattress you have is too soft and does not support your body enough as you sleep at night.

There are many medical advantages that are associated with adjustable beds. Adjustable beds have been said to improve circulation, help to reduce lower back pain and tension, improve breathing conditions, help with acid reflux, and many other benefits. A good majority of these advantages come from the ability to easily put the sleeper in the semi-fowler position. The semi-fowler position occurs when the head is elevated to 30 - 45 degrees, and is largely accepted in the hospital industry as providing many advantages for patients who have undergone surgery.



Of all the medical benefits associated with adjustable beds, conceivably the most interesting is its help with combating acid reflux. Acid Reflux, or gastro esophageal reflux disease, is a common medical condition wherein acids from the stomach are regurgitated into the esophagus. Small amounts of acid reflux, or heartburn, are normal, but chronic cases will result in damage an inflammation of the esophagus. By elevating the upper body, the sleeper experiences far fewer if any gastric upsets and finds it easier to sleep through the night.

Adjustable beds offer many other advantages that revolve around individual comfort and usability. They make it much easier and more ergonomic to watch TV or to read books in bed. It is also much more ergonomic and practical to eat in bed with an adjustable bed which is very convenient for those on bedrest. Whether you are purchasing your adjustable bed for one of the many of the medical reasons, simply to get a better nights rest, or for any of the other advantages associated with them, you will be astonished at the comfortable feelings associated with these beds.

Most have a remote control which enables the user to raise and lower the mattress height to assisting in getting out of bed, transferring to and from the wheelchair, making the bed and minimizing the risk of injury. Head altitude option raises the head of the bed, thus supporting the back and head. This option aids in sitting up in bed with support, getting out of bed, and changing to different positions. Leg elevation option can be used for elevation of the lower legs and this feature is helpful for people with edema, phlebitis, circulation problems, or for fluid drainage. If you have medical needs like osteoarthritis, asthma, spinal stenosis, varicose veins, or have neck or back pain, these adjustable lift beds will enable you to find a comfortable position easily.

If you or your partner toss or turn a lot during the night or have different schedules, then getting a Tempurpedic foam mattress is the best choice for you as it make sure you or your partner will not be disturbed even as either of you fidget. This is because of the density and nature of the material that the mattress is made from. It will help to adjust a persons weight evenly across the mattress, providing them with a much more comfortable nights sleep compared to what traditional mattresses offer. This type of mattress is often used in hospitals for those patients who suffer from arthritis as it can also help to relieve the joint pain and other circulatory afflictions.

By: Moe Kittaneh

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Tempurpedic foam mattresses are viscoelastic. That means the mattress was designed in such a way as to conform to the contours of your body. Adjustable beds conform to a persons body shape but it will return to its original shape after a person has got off it.

http://www.articledashboard.com/Article/Medical-Benefits-of-Tempurpedic-Foam-Mattress-and-Adjustable-bed/681196

There is another breathtaking feature available in these adjustable beds and that is knee break. This is also another leg elevation option which is used to support the thighs at a certain angle while keeping the lower legs elevated and parallel to the mattress. There are the typical hospital type adjustable beds with normal metallic frames and also the more fashionable looking beds available for home use. The benefit of the hospital type beds is that they are very functional when bed rails are needed or a heave is required for regular transfers from the bed.

Tempurpedic foam mattresses have many benefits which can be amplified when used with an adjustable bed. One of these is the ability to keep motion. This simply means when your partner moves during the night, you will not be affected by his/her movements. This is due to the tempurpedics foam density and the lack of springs and open space inside the mattress.

A Tempurpedic foam mattress conforms to your body shape which takes the resistance pressure off of your hips and shoulders and other areas where pressure points occur while supporting the lower back. It can also evenly adjust your weight across the surface giving you greater comfort during sleep. Visco elastic memory foam materials are denser therefore they can diffuse accumulated pressure points and cradle the lower back providing a feeling of weightlessness.

Tempurpedic foam mattresses are used in some hospitals to serve as an orthopedic bed, helping patients suffering from arthritis and many other conditions. It can help to relieve joint pains caused by certain sleeping positions as well. Retailers offer a wide variety of other memory foam mattresses, pillows, mattress toppers as well to meet almost and y need and budget.

April 17 2016

populani

April 13 2016

populani

Health & Fitness :: Dropsy or Edema (Page 1 of 2)

A potassium deficiency, which can further harm the kidneys, can be produced by eating too much salt, by cortisone therapy, or by diuretics used in treating https://nccih.nih.gov/health/chiropractic/introduction.htm kidney diseases. In animals, this deficiency causes the blood pressure to soar, the kidneys to swell to twice their normal size, and the cells of the tubules to become so engorged with water that they burst. When the kidney arteries of animals are tied to simulate those plugged with cholesterol and such animals are given salt, severe nephrosis develops, but similarly treated animals kept on a low-salt diet have no kidney damage.



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http://www.articlebiz.com/article/1051316034-1-dropsy-or-edema/



Increasing Urine

Because cholesterol deposition of long standing damages the kidneys and heart alike, severe nephrosis is often associated with a tired, slow-pumping heart which can force relatively little blood through the diseased kidneys, thus resulting in still greater fluid, salt, and urea retention and still higher blood pressure. This condition, often treated only by restricting salt and liquid, calls for maximum dietary improvement.

Another cause of dropsy is that, when the kidneys are damaged, blood albumin is lost in the urine. Frequently as much protein as is supplied by a quart of milk is excreted daily over a period of years, so all of it coming from body tissues unless supplied in foods. Much additional albumin passes into the intestines and is lost in the feces particularly in persons who are anemic, a common abnormality during nephrosis, when iron, copper, and numerous blood-building nutrients are so easily lost through the damaged kidneys.' Because blood albumin is vitally important in collecting urine, when it drops abnormally low, fluids and wastes remain in the' tissues. Edema occurs readily when the diet is too low in protein or supplies so few calories that protein must be used for energy, but the rate of albumin production can be doubled by an adequate diet extremely high in protein.

Excessive water retention, spoken of as dropsy or edema, may be noticeable only as swollen ankles or puffiness around the eyes yet be so extensive that an emaciated person appears overweight. Such a condition usually indicates adrenal exhaustion.

Years ago it was shown that vitamin C markedly increased urine production, and that only 300 to 500 milligrams daily were as effective as many medicinal diuretics. Vitamin C is less effective when the salt intake is high, and if given by injection, is lost so rapidly ,through the injured kidneys that it has little value. Vitamin E at times also acts as a diuretic; and urine production has been increased by giving 75,000 units of vitamin A daily.

Giving large amounts of pantothenic acid to young men under stress increased the excretion of sodium, which holds water in the body. A diet high in calcium and adequate in vitamin D likewise increases the excretion of salt, thus reducing edema, whereas one high in carbohydrate holds both salt and water in the tissues. The stress of nephritis may also cause the adrenals to produce excessive amounts of aldosterone, which holds so much salt and water in the body that edema and elevated blood pressure result. Animals given diets deficient in nutrients that limit cortisone production, such as pantothenic acid and vitamins B2 and B12 develop edema, which is corrected when the missing vitamins are supplied or cortisone is given.

April 11 2016

populani

Iran 'receiving Russian missile system'

Iran's foreign ministry spokesman Hossein Jaberi-Ansari said "the first stage of the contract has been implemented".



Russian S-300 air defence missiles 'arrive in Iran' - BBC News

S-300 missile system on show in Moscow, 28 Aug 13 file picImage copyrightAFPImage captionThe S-300 could greatly improve Iran's air defences

Russia is reported to have started delivering S-300 surface-to-air missiles to Iran, under a deal opposed by Israel, the US and Saudi Arabia.

The $800m (?562m) contract, signed in 2007, was frozen by Russia in 2010 because of the international sanctions. President Vladimir Putin unfroze it a year ago.

The S-300V4 variant, delivered to the http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chiropractic Russian armed forces in 2014, can shoot down any medium-range missile in the world today, flies at five times the speed of sound and has a range of 400km (249 miles), Russia's Tass news agency reports.

Rostec chief Sergei Chemezov had told the Wall Street Journal last month that delivery of the system to Iran was expected at the end of this year.

Image copyrightAFPImage captionThe missiles can shoot down jets and other missiles hundreds of kilometres away

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-36013847

The diplomatic breakthrough involved a deal over Iran's atomic programme, imposing new international safeguards aimed at preventing Iran from developing nuclear weapons.

It is not yet clear how many missiles may have been delivered.

Iran has insisted its nuclear programme is for purely peaceful purposes and denies seeking to build a nuclear bomb.

The S-300, made by Rostec, can be used against multiple targets including jets, or to shoot down other missiles.

The controversial contract got the go-ahead after international sanctions on Iran were lifted last year.

Israel and the US fear the missiles could be used to protect Iranian nuclear sites from air strikes.



Profile: Russia's S-300 missile system

April 06 2016

populani

Chiropractic Care Can Reverse Developmental Delays in Children

The goal of all chiropractors is to correct nerve interference, safely and effectively to make sure the human body is operating at its most efficient state. Also known as vertebral subluxation, chiropractic is the only profession that deals directly with the removal of nerve interference. Acute conditions can be a result of trauma during childbirth, sports and accidents. Due to these situations vertebrae can become misaligned and muscle tissue and nerves may http://www.alternativevet.org/chiropractic.htm be affected. Chiropractic adjustment relieves pressure on nerves, allowing vertebrae to move naturally thereby permitting the body to function normally. The International Chiropractic Pediatric Association (ICPA) has published research and documented that spinal manipulative therapy is safe and successful in treating children of all ages.



http://www.examiner.com/article/chiropractic-care-can-reverse-developmental-delays-children

Since 1996 Dr. Murphy has led the team at Whole Health Partners in providing a patient centered, holistic approach to chiropractic care and whole health wellness. In addition to his chiropractic education, Dr. Murphy has studied extensively in nutrition, meditation as well as advanced soft tissue techniques.

Dr. Murphys FSS discovery and implementation of the occipital-atlanto adjustment was immediately shown to have a dramatic effect on a wide variety of other neurological conditions, which were occurring simultaneously in some frozen shoulder patients. It wasn't long before the connection between the neurological cause of FSS, known as the Hatcher-Murphy Subluxation, and neurological based developmental difficulties in children was revealed. The OTZ Team of doctors, led by Dr. Murphy, has been researching and testing the results of using the occipital-atlanto adjustment for the treatment of Hatcher-Murphy Subluxations in children for more than 2 years. The team regularly identifies and reverses this misalignment in children with developmental delays such as Autism, Aspergers, ADD and ADHD. The preliminary results of Dr. Murphys findings were recently published in the December 2012 edition of the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.



In 2006 Dr. Francis X. Murphy, chief practitioner of Whole Health Partners in Dallas, made a phenomenal discovery which isolated the cause of Frozen Shoulder Syndrome (FSS) as a neurological disorder. Since his discovery, Dr. Murphy has been researching and developing a complete curriculum on the resolution of the true cause of FSS, dubbed the OTZ Tension Adjustment. He currently travels around the world teaching other chiropractic doctors the occipital-atlanto adjustment for the treatment of FSS, and has personally resolved over 1000 cases of FSS using the technique.

Chiropractic Care Can Reverse Developmental Delays in Children

Whole Health Partners

For more information on using the OTZ Method for treatment of the Hatcher-Murphy Subluxations in children, please visit www.tomorrowsgeniuses.com and www.otzhealthed.com. For more information about Whole Health Partners please visit www.wholehealthpartners.com, look them up on Facebook and Twitter or call 214.368.3030 to set up an appointment.

April 03 2016

populani

Treating that pain in the neck

Gupta: The neck is a huge source of pain. But most pain is concentrated in the low back. The low back is the crux of all the movement we do every day. Any time you twist, bend, walk, stand, lift, you're impacting this part of your back. When you think about the pressure we put here -- while we ride in the car for hours commuting, or when we're on airplanes, when we lift things the wrong way -- all of that takes a toll on the back. But here's what this study is telling us: Your back pain is probably not going to get better if you rush to the doctor for a pain pill prescription. It's not going to get better if you ask for imaging studies such s MRIs.

Brook I. Martin, M.P.H., of the University of Washington, Seattle, and colleagues conducted a study to examine changes in expenditures and health status related to spine problems. The researchers analyzed 1997 - 2005 data from the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). A total of 23,045 respondents (U.S. adults older than 17 years) were sampled in 1997, including 3,139 who reported spine problems. In 2005, the sample included 22,258 respondents, including 3,187 who reported spine problems.

Chiropractors can provide a lot of relief. I have friends who use them all the time, and they provide a lot of relief in the short term.

If there is something that is lingering, continuing for a long period of time, or if you're starting to develop numbness or weakness, then it probably is time to get it checked out and even get something done about it.

Background

ORIGINAL PRESS RELEASE

Expenditures Rising for Back and Neck Problems, But Health Outcomes Do Not Appear to Be Improving

Back and neck problems are among the symptoms most commonly encountered in clinical practice. In a 2002 survey of U.S. adults, 26 percent reported low back pain and 14 percent reported neck pain in the previous three months, according to background information in the article. Rates of imaging and therapy for back and neck (spine) problems have increased substantially in the last decade, but it is not clear how this has effected expenditures or health outcomes for individuals with these problems.

"These data suggest that spine problems are expensive, due both to large numbers of affected persons and to high costs per person. We did not observe improvements in health outcomes commensurate with the increasing costs over time. Spine problems may offer opportunities to reduce expenditures without associated worsening of clinical outcomes," the authors conclude.

http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/dailydose/11/26/pain.neck.back/index.html

CHICAGO - Although expenses related to back and neck problems have increased substantially in the last decade, outcomes such as functional disability and work limitations do not appear to be improving, according to a study in the February 13 issue of JAMA.

Where does the pain come from, and is the money worth it?

The researchers found that expenditures were higher in each year for those with spine problems than for those without. In 1997,the average age- and sex-adjusted medical costs for respondents with spine problems was $4,695, compared with $2,731 among those without http://www.palmer.edu/ spine problems (inflation adjusted to 2005 dollars). In 2005, the average age- and sex-adjusted medical expenditures among respondents with spine problems was $6,096, compared with $3,516 among those without spine problems. From 1997 to 2005, these trends resulted in an estimated 65 percent inflation-adjusted increase in the total national expenditure of adults with spine problems, a more rapid increase than overall health expenditures.

What can you do about neck and back pain?

Gupta: In the long term, you really do need to think about losing weight and strengthening the big muscles that run up and down along the spine. If you strengthen those muscles, you're much more likely to be able to tolerate the wear and tear of daily life.

We now know that 80 to 85 percent of the time, this pain goes away within a couple or three weeks. Going to the doctor, getting a narcotic pill, or getting an MRI really doesn't seem to speed up that recovery.

Most of the difference observed in inflation-adjusted expenditures between those with and without spine problems in 2005 was accounted for by outpatient services (36 percent) and inpatient services (28 percent). Smaller proportions were accounted for by prescription medications (23 percent); emergency department visits (3 percent); and home health, dental and other expenses (10 percent).



Billions of dollars are spent on medication, surgery and imaging, but many cases may not require doctor's care.

Billions of dollars are spent on medication, surgery and imaging, but many cases may not require doctor's care.

Back and neck problems are among the most commonly encountered issues in clinical practice. Can a remedy such as enlisting a chiropractor work? And when should a person seek treatment for back pain?

A 2002 survey of U.S. adults revealed that 26 percent had low back pain and 14 percent reported neck pain in the previous three months. According to the study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on February 13, 2008, Americans are spending more than $80 billion every year on back pain.

Questions and answers

Where are those billions of dollars going?

Dr. Sanjay Gupta, CNN chief medical correspondent: It's being spent on prescription pain medications, on surgery, and on MRIs and other imaging studies. This study found that we are spending as much each year to treat back pain as we spend treating cancer. That's staggering -- spending more than $80 billion on a problem that in most cases does not require a doctor's care.

The estimated proportion of persons with back or neck problems who self-reported physical functioning limitations increased from 20.7 percent to 24.7 percent from 1997 to 2005. Adjusted self-reported measures of mental health, physical functioning, work or school limitations, and social limitations among adults with spine problems were worse in 2005 than in 1997.

March 30 2016

populani

Uninsured turn to Groupon for health care

Cho said in an interview that his health insurance plan only covers 20 percent of the regular price of Lasik since it is considered a cosmetic procedure. He would have paid about $4,000 if he had used his insurance discount.

Feinerman got exactly the type of patient he was looking for in Thomas Cho. Cho, 29, bought the offer and after the surgery wrote a review on Yelp. He gave the vision center five stars the highest rating on the website.

Cho decided to buy the Groupon, paying $2,100 initially. After consulting with the doctor, he upgraded his surgery to an all-laser procedure for $1,000 more. At the time, Cho's credit card issuer was offering a 20 percent cash back promotion on Groupon purchases. In all, he saved more than $1,300.

Dentists have traditionally offered deals by mailing out coupons, but paper coupons have a low redemption rate, Williams said. Local deal sites are more attractive to doctors and dentists because they get paid up front and they reach new clients.

The deals are popping up across the nation. In New York, a full medical checkup with blood, stool and urinalysis testing sold for $69 in December on Groupon below the regular price of $200. In Seattle, a flu shot was offered on AmazonLocal for $17, down from $35. In Chicago, LivingSocial sold a dental exam, cleaning, X-rays and teeth whitening trays for $99, a savings of $142.

Daily deal sites like Groupon and LivingSocial are best known for offering limited-time discounts on a variety of discretionary goods and services including restaurant meals, wine tastings, spa visits and hotel stays. The discounts are paid for upfront and then it's up to the customer to book an appointment and redeem a coupon before it expires. Merchants like the deals because it gives them exposure and a pop in business. Customers use them to try something new, to save money on something they already use, or both.

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/uninsured-turn-to-groupon-for-health-care/

"I was accustomed to going to the dentist every six months," said Stella who owns SmartPhones, a store and wholesale business in Miami that sells mobile phone covers and accessories. "This filled the gap."

The sites are increasingly moving beyond little luxuries like facials and vacations and offering deals that are helping some people fill holes in their health insurance coverage. Visitors to these sites are finding a growing number of markdowns on health care services such as teeth cleanings, eye exams, chiropractic care and even medical checkups. They're also offering deals on elective procedures not commonly covered by health insurers, such as wrinkle-reducing Botox injections and vision-correcting Lasik eye surgery. About one out of every 11 deals offered online is for a health care service, according to data compiled by DealRadar.com, a site that gathers and lists 20,000 deals a day from different websites.

"We reached a whole new demographic who otherwise wouldn't find us," said Dr. Gregg Feinerman, an ophthalmologist who runs Feinerman Vision Center in Newport Beach, Calif. He offered a 58 percent discount on Lasik eye surgery through Groupon. "It's a better way to market," he said.

Dental deals are the most popular among users of local deal websites likely because even more people lack dental insurance than health insurance. Among the 172 million people under 65 who have private health insurance in the U.S., about 45 million don't have dental coverage, according to the CDC.

The health care deals may be attractive for people with gaps in their coverage or no insurance, but jumping from one health care provider to the next isn't ideal. Visiting the same doctor or dentist makes it easier to monitor how a patient's health is progressing, said David Williams, co-founder of medical consultancy group MedPharma Partners and author of HealthBusinessBlog.com.

He used Groupon as a way to bring in patients under 30-years old with the hope that they would recommend his services to friends and rate him on review website Yelp. A good review might persuade someone else to visit his office, Feinerman said. He charges $5,000 for the surgery on both eyes; a price that he said can be "overwhelming for 20-to 30-year-olds."

The number of health care deals began rising as copycat websites attempted to get a piece of the market. Search leader Google and shopping site Amazon.com have recently gotten into the game.

Feinerman approached Groupon about listing the eye surgery for $3,000. Groupon, which is based in Chicago, pushed him to lower the price to $2,100.

"I had my post-op checkup and I am seeing 20/20," Cho wrote on Yelp. "I couldn't be happier."

2011 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.



About 9 percent of all offers on daily deal websites in November were for dental work or some kind of medical treatment, up from 4.5 percent in the beginning of 2011, said Dan Hess, CEO and founder of Local Offer Network, which runs DealRadar.com. The growth in health-related deals is good news for millions of Americans. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 46.3 million Americans under 65 have no health coverage.



Stella, a small business owner, canceled his health insurance plan more than three years ago when his premium rose to more than $400 a month. He considered himself healthy and decided that he was wasting money on something that he rarely used.

NEW YORK - The last time Mark Stella went to the dentist he didn't need an insurance card. Instead, he pulled out a Groupon.

Not all have been successful. In August, social networking site Facebook dropped its plan to start a daily deal business, and Yelp, a site that allows customers to write reviews of restaurants and other businesses, scaled back its daily deal efforts. Many smaller sites have closed. But the shakeout in the industry hasn't hurt the number of health deals being offered since the industry leaders, like Groupon, are offering more deals and are moving into more markets, Hess said.

Also, it's important for patients to do their own research before buying a medical or dental deal, Williams said. "A referral from someone you trust is the best path," said Williams.

So when a deal popped up on daily deals site Groupon for a teeth cleaning, exam and an X-ray at a nearby dentist, Stella, 55, bought the deal which the company calls a "Groupon" for himself and another http://www.spine-health.com/treatment/chiropractic/what-a-chiropractor for his daughter. He paid $39 for each, $151 below what the dentist normally charges.

February 21 2016

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Autos & Trucks :: Maintenance Articles

Dr Claudia Ng. However, once a tooth has been knocked out either brought on by disease or an accident, it is difficult to replace that missing baby tooth since children still continue to grow. These mono-toned, yet utterly stunning fish belong towards the class named "Hikari Muji Mono", where Hikari is Japanese for "metallic", Muji means "single colored", and Mono means "ones" (in other words, the "Metallic single colored ones"). However, once a tooth has been knocked out either brought on by an infection or perhaps an accident, it is challenging to replace that missing baby tooth since children still continue to grow. What it will do, however, is provide very good back support and "remind" one to self-correct your alignment.

Going back to choose again, choose again and judge again, I ultimately decided to begin taking some of that alignment with me at night off my mat starting with changing my perspective on my life. At the identical time, the treatment, called alignment, is really a practical manipulation of the spinal column, extremities and joints. Learn more about methods and therapeutic techniques of your Rockledge chiropractor by visiting online at http://www. At exactly the same time, the treatment, called alignment, can be a hands on manipulation of the spinal column, extremities and joints. This article was posted on March 30, 2006.

Energy Lines: Down through the extended back leg, out through the hips, out through the bent knee and along the leg, and up through the spine, arms, and crown of the head. Strengthens legs and opens chest. It helps to sculpt and improve the inner thighs and legs while you exercise.

ArticleSnatch Authors:. However, if the right ankle is lower and the right ASIS is higher thenthere can be a very good chance the right leg is anatomically longer. These range from weakness, tingling or numbness within the lower limbs, although generally it only affects one side of the body. Is it simply a self fulfilling prophecy? And we simply continue around the hamster circle wondering why nothing good ever occurs us.

When it comes down to this, you may also try trigger point therapy. Companies are more likely to provide warranties on their quality memory foam mattresses that a knock-off brand. This alembic alignment arrangement has continued four point anchor tips with actual attenuate profiles that fit in the selection of custom alembic profiles, plus it has central and alfresco tip have a peek here positioning. Nevertheless, these kiddie dentures have its uses and may also help in the proper alignment of the permanent teeth. Ultrasound waves are used by physical therapists to provide warmth and heat to regenerating tissues that also induces soothing pain relief in the case of sprains, dislocations and tearing of annular fibrosus.

This whole process can be achieved in less than the usual minute. It includes both SAI and the camber angle together. Companies are more inclined to supply warranties on their quality memory foam navigate here mattresses that a knock-off brand. At exactly the same time, the treatment, called alignment, is a hands on manipulation of the spinal column, extremities and joints. Marco La Starza is utilizing state of the art technologies and processes to locate and correct the underlying cause of your problems.

It sounds like common sense to say everything inside the body is connected, but I've met several individuals who have never thought of their body in that way. The Ranger CRT380R has user affable time extenuative appearance such as its above awning cartoon with active animations and displays that bear a beauteous beheld and training acquaintance for your technician. The Ranger CRT380R has user affable time extenuative appearance such as its above awning cartoon with active animations and displays that bear a beauteous beheld and training acquaintance for the technician. theventanagroup.
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Your Help Guide To Buying An Instrument By Ant Wakefield

So what do you do when life gives you lemons? That's right - you put in a lemon juice harvesting system and make use of the stored fresh lemon juice for daily chores like washing the hands or flushing the toilet or whatever - exactly the identical as if life gave you rain. Because this metal contains many impurities, it takes the process of electrolysis to free it from cadmium impurities to get "Electrolyte Copper". When we toggle the product range switch, the force needs to be appropriate, avoiding the damage to metal switch. Electrical contractor companies and also the electricians they employ design, install, maintain and repair residential, commercial and industrial electrical systems and electrical projects.

The manufacture of PCBs was stopped within the U. This can be of use just in case of gas leak. This can be of use just in case of gas leak. This can be useful in case of gas leak. Watch the video below for the way you can develop a circuit using lemons!.

So, now that I've outlined the advantages of your DIY energy generator, let's consider the biggest issue that many folks have when viewing native home energy sources - cost. The user can also download the recorder measurement data to his personal computer for further reviewing and graphing using FlukeView software. The user may use this infrared Fluke instrument for inspecting electrical components, motors, bearing, electrical connections, and also for docks and vents. Standard home appliances typically use a three prong outlet. You can scroll different sites &amp online portals to review about these different refrigeration units, their importance and employ in more detail.

meets using the recuperation period of have a peek here the ventricles. One big block Charger and Detachable Cable plug into power outlet, few times it is possible that brick is broken or might be not working. An energy density equal to NiMH batteries is a large step forward, but of course even higher energy density is desired. natively retain the scaled-down drill all over for daily household duties and employment who have almost no absolutely free work area.

The V-gard 500 is amid the most demanded hats as it delivers greater air circulation and ease. Check the wheels. The show should go on, although there may be some accommodations made for electrical instruments. To be certified "intrinsically safe," a computer device or circuit should be so designed that no two simultaneous failures may cause an explosion.

Visit me @ http://www. If your Charger may be imperfect we readily interchange with new one. 0005 milligrams of PCBs per liter of drinking water (0. Unless the handle is pushed to the OFF position, it cannot be re-shut. 25 watts may be the power consumption figure for your AquaGuard water purifier it consumes only 1 unit current in 40 hours, purifying no less than 4800 litres resulting in consumption of only 52 units per year!.
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January 29 2016

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Vanessa Hudgens And Austin Butler Share An Enthusiastic Kiss Before Attending Church

Ankle sprains sometimes happens instantaneously. It is one of three main nerves inside the arm and runs from your collarbone on the arm towards the inside of the elbow and on towards the hand. However, nearly all of these individuals didn't even play tennis. Main (rectus) Abdominals Botti Chiropractic & Wellness Strengthening with The Therapy Ballby: Dr.

* Rest the foot and ankle. The active ingredient, cur cumin, is responsible for these properties and in studies has shown to become as effectual as potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but without the medial side effects. X-rays of the joints may as well be required to figure out how severe the condition is.

Over the years, treating tennis elbow have included NSAIDs, corticosteroid injections, botox injections, physical therapy, and also surgery. My arm is still a bit sore and stiff but I do have my full selection of motion back. rosecottagefloweressences.

Symptoms of Knee Bursitis:. L'Heureux, BS, Matthew T. A dog with hip dysplasia may have problems with stiffness or soreness, reluctance to exercise and to stand on rear legs, lameness, pain along with other abnormal gait. Skin infection is called cellulitis.

Hypothyroidism can be a skin condition that's caused by lowered levels of thyroid hormones. Why I'm not oversized is actually because I have absorbed a large amount of knowledge concerning proper diet. Ankle Bursitis:.

Shop From Online Pharmacies And Save As Much As 90% on The Purchase Of Tricor Along With Other Medicines By: RosieAguirre - Buy generic Tricor and save as much as 90% on your purchase. He is really a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. He is really a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. If anything, early detection enables you to consider your dogs problem head on, as early as possible. Be patient and you will see amazing results.
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